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Can Dogs Drink Milk?

Milk is not toxic to your furry friends, but it’s high in calcium and protein, so it shouldn’t be a part of your dog’s diet as it can upset their stomach and cause longterm health problems, advice Dr Ashwani Kumar Singh & Dr Kumar Manglam Yadav

Dairy products can have great benefits for humans. They’re rich in vitamin D and calcium, which can help keep your teeth and bones nice and strong. It has chock-full of benefits for humans, but, when it comes to our four-legged friends, is there a similar answer to the question: Can our beloved pooches have milk, too? After all, our furry friends drink their mother’s milk, but when it comes to dairy substitutes, it is a big no! Milk is not toxic to your furry friends, meaning your four- legged friend can have a lick. Most dogs love dairy products, meaning that milk and other milk-based products remain popular additions to canine diets. But it’s not recommended that they drink it regularly, and the reasons might surprise you. You might want to skip giving your dog a sip.

Is Milk Safe for My Little Putzi?

Does your four-legged furry friend give you those hard-to resist eyes while you are indulging in a glass of milk? But as you take another sip, you might wonder “Can my furry friend drink milk?” Milk contains a sugar called lactose that requires an enzyme for proper digestion known as lactase. A new born puppy that’s nursing produces a lot of lactases, which is an enzyme that allows it to break down lactose, a sugar found in milk. That’s why puppies can drink their mother’s milk easily with no side-effects, like an upset stomach. As puppies become weaned, and are no longer dependent on their mother’s milk, they will produce less lactase in their digestion system, and, in fact, that’s why they become lactose. The lactose in milk is blamed for diarrhoea, vomiting, loss of appetite, bloating, flatulence, and other symptoms associated with lactose intolerance.

Is Milk Safe for My Adult Furry?

Canine companions love dairy products. They even go mad for them. Milk is a safe treat in small quantities. A few tablespoons of milk on an occasional basis can be a nice reward for your furry friend. But, you should probably hold off on offering your pooch an entire bowl in one sitting. Though drinking milk is not toxic to your furry friend, it may produce a lot of significant problems. Many dogs are lactose intolerant to some degree, which means they have a difficult time digesting dairy product. Your furry friend can’t tell you when they’re unwell, so it’s important to keep an eye on their behaviour to recognize the signs of unwell. You may check for the following signs for tracing the health of your pooches:

  • Loose stools
  • Bloating
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Diarrhoea
  • Flatulence
  • Cramping
  • Dehydration
  • Lethargy
  • Lack of appetite

Sometimes, lactose intolerance is confused with a dairy allergy in pets. It refers to the inability to tolerate the proteins in milk and can be far more serious. Dogs with dairy allergies may display signs such as: Red, inflamed skin Itchiness and scratching

  • Hives
  • Facial swelling
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Licking their paws
  • Hair loss

Because of the high fat content of most dairy products, especially whole milk, consumption can lead to pancreatitis for your dog, which is a highly serious condition. How About Ice-creams? Your K9 companion loves frozen dairy treats like you, but frozen dairy treats may not love him back. Ice-cream made with cow’s milk is likely to be high in lactose, also sweetened with sugar, high in fat, and artificially flavoured, which may be toxic to your furry friends. Always check the ingredients; some contain xylitol, maltodextrin, polydextrose, sorbitol, which is seriously toxic to your furry friends. You could prepare a healthier alternative like freezing plain yogurt in ice cube trays. You may also add fresh fruit, peanut butter, or other sugar-free flavourings before freezing along with wooden sticks for holding the treats for your fur balls. While the occasional lick of your ice-cream cone or lap from your mug should not be a big deal unless your dog is allergic, you should avoid allowing your pet to indulge in large amounts of milk and other dairy products. If your dog gets its paws on a large helping of milk, monitor for signs of abdominal distress. Gastric upset will generally occur within about 12 hours after your furry friend consumes milk but can last for much longer, so prepare for frequent trips outside so your poor pup can relieve himself. If you notice these signs of lactose intolerance, or a change in behaviour possibly caused by dairy’s adverse effects, call your vet right away.

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Caring for a Newborn

Few things are more delightful than a litter of new-born puppies and kittens, but the prospect of caring for all of these brands new little lives can be daunting. Check out this nutritional and health management guide by Dr T. A. Shafi, Dr A. K. Wankar, Dr A. M. Syed and Dr P. M. Mane to raise a healthy, happy litter.

The neonatal period of new-born pups and kittens is the first two weeks after birth during which they are completely dependent upon their mother’s care as they are born immaturely (responsible for high pre-weaning mortality of 40%) Furthermore, the initial 36 hours are physiologically stressful for pups or kittens due to the process of birth and exposure and adjustment to a new environment. Therefore, efforts for providing quiet, warm queening areas, minimising stress and disturbance from human visitors to the litter should be warranted during this critical time period. Deworming is important to raise a healthy pet as puppies and kittens are most of the time born with intestinal parasites or can pick them up from the surrounding environment. Kittens or puppies are born with an immature immune system, thus are prone to infections as kittens receive only 25% of their maternally derived antibodies through the placenta and puppies only 5% to 10%. Both are mainly dependent on the mother’s colostrum for passive transfer of maternal antibodies that are maximally absorbed by GIT within eight hours of birth and diminished absorption occurs after 24 hours. The maternal antibodies last for about 16 to 20 weeks of age; therefore, the neonate needs to build its own immunity to fight infections and must be vaccinated against common diseases of concern.

Feeding of newborn pups and kittens

Like other mammals, female dogs and cats produce colostrum during the first few days that provides nutrition, bioactive factors and passive immunity (antibodies) that protects them from diseases up to 16 weeks of age when their immune system becomes fully functional. Due to transfer of a smaller quantity of passive immunity in utero (10% to 20%) during pregnancy, there is need for immediate nursing within 24 hours after birth for colostrum that is a good source of antibodies, bioactive factors and maintains circulatory volume in newborns. Dog milk is higher in energy than cat milk due to its higher fat and slightly higher protein content, however in both the species the total energy content of the milk decreases gradually from colostrum to the milk produced during midlactation and thereafter energy content increases until weaning. Despite low gastric acid production in puppies and kittens until three weeks of age, they are efficient in digestion of milk proteins, however due to not fully developed renal function they are sensitive to excessive or poor-quality protein intake. At birth, the gastrointestinal tract of puppies and kittens is sterile and as they start taking milk from day one, microbial colonisation begins that continues to evolve when solid food is introduced at the age of 3 to 4 weeks.

Introduction of solid food

At the age of three to four weeks supplemental food should be introduced either in the form of specific commercial foods or a thick gruel made by mixing a small amount of warm water with the mother’s food. Homemade weaning formula must be avoided unless its exact nutrient composition is known as they are high in nutrient value and are not nutritionally balanced or complete. The semisolid food should be provided in a shallow dish several times per day every two-three hours and the bowl should be removed after 20 to 30 minutes. Initially, the pups and kittens will fill their belly with dam’s milk and will consume a small quantity of semisolid gruel, however at five weeks of age they will be consuming mainly semisolid food. Between 21 and 35 days after birth deciduous teeth erupt and puppies and kittens are able to chew and consume dry food at five to six weeks of age at which nutritional weaning is complete. Some bitches continue to allow their young ones to nurse for eight weeks of age or longer possibly due to psychological and emotional benefits of suckling, therefore complete weaning (behavioural weaning) for puppies and kittens is done at seven to eight weeks of age.

Raising of orphaned or rejected pups and kittens

Orphaned or rejected pups and kittens need special supplements for their survival provided with pet nursers (nursing bottle) or sometimes if puppy or kitten is having a problem taking the bottle, a veterinarian may be called for feeding with a stomach tube. Milk formulation should be warmed mildly, especially placing the bottle in a cup of warm water. Feeding should be done while lying on the stomach as other positions may lead to choke followed by gently patting on their back to help burp up any air swallowed during feeding. There are a large number of commercial milk replacers for puppies and kittens and also homemade milk replacer can also be prepared and administered taking proper hygienic precautions while making and storing such preparations. The quantity of formulation that will last for 24 to 48 hours should be prepared and stored in a glass container and unused preparation kept in a refrigerator. Homemade milk replacers can be prepared as per the formulation given in the table below;

Homemademilkreplacer forpuppiesa)- Cow’s or goat’s milk
b)- Water
c)- Egg yolks
d)- Vegetable oil
e)- Calcium carbonate
120 ml
120 ml
2 to 4
1 to 2 tsp
1000 mg
Homemademilkreplacer forkittensa)- Condensed milk
b)- Water
c)- Plain yogurt(not low fat)
d)- Egg yolks
90 ml
90 ml
120 ml 
3 large or 4 small

Potty training of pups and kittens

For the first three weeks of life, puppies and kittens need stimulation to urinate and defecate using a warm, wet cotton ball to gently wipe the urinary and anal openings. Although neonates may not defecate every time stimulated, elimination is quickly stimulated and daily passes a couple of moderately yellowish stools. Training a cat is easier and faster than a dog as cats has a natural instinct to bury their waste. Inside the house the pets need crate training and if pets are alone at home, they need to be kept inside the crate that will act as a safe place or den for them and should be removed out if its crate as soon as possible or give them a potty break in the middle of the day so that they will develop a good habit and will not see it as punishment or develop a ill behaviour. Sometimes they may be scolded for negative behaviour so that they connect the punishment to the accident that will help in potty training. If still they are not behaving properly, help from a professional dog trainer can be sought for proper training or examination by a veterinarian may be carried out to rule out any underlying problem.

Deworming of pups

Deworming is important to raise a healthy pet as puppies and kittens are most of the time born with intestinal parasites or can pick them up from the surrounding environment. Common types of worms seen in dogs and cats include hookworms, roundworms, tapeworms and whipworms. There is also risk of transmission of these intestinal parasites to humans and therefore proper deworming protocol may be followed to protect pets and self from infestation. Puppies and kittens need to be dewormed every 2 weeks until 3 months of age, followed by once a month until 6 months of age and thereafter once in every three months.

Kittens or puppies are born with an immature immune system, thus are prone to infections as kittens receive only 25% of their maternally derived antibodies through the placenta and puppies only 5% to 10%. Both are mainly dependent on the mother’s colostrum for passive transfer of maternal antibodies that are maximally absorbed by GIT within eight hours of birth and diminished absorption occurs after 24 hours. If the neonate is orphaned or has not ingested colostrum, antibodies can be provided by administration of serum or plasma collected from different vaccinated adults of the same species orally or subcutaneously (kittens < 24 hours old @ 15 ml orally as three boluses, at birth, 12 hours 24 hours and for older kittens single bolus subcutaneously and puppies @ 22 ml/kg given at once in large pups or split into boluses as described for kittens). The maternal antibodies last for about 16 to 20 weeks of age, therefore the neonate needs to build its own immunity to fight infections and must be vaccinated against common diseases of concern. Dogs must be vaccinated against Canine Distemper, Infectious Canine Hepatitis, Kennel Cough, Canine Parvovirus, Rabies and Leptospirosis while as cats against Feline Leukemia, Feline Panleukopenia, Feline Calicivirus Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis and Rabies. Ideally dogs and cats are vaccinated at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, with booster vaccination doses given annually.


Hoskins JD: Nutrition and nutritional problems. In Hoskins JD (ed): Veterinary paediatrics: dogs and cats from birth to six months, ed 3, St. Louis, 2001, Saunders/Elsevier.

Johnston SD, Root Kustritz MV, Olsen PNS: The neonate: from birth to weaning. In Johnston SD, Root Kustritz MV, Olsen PNS (eds): Canine and feline theriogenology, St Louis, 2001, Saunders/Elsevier.

Peterson ME, Care of the Orphaned Puppy and Kitten, in Small Animal Paediatrics: The first 12 months of life, 1st edition, ed, Michael E Peterson. 2011, Elsevier/Saunders, China.

Authors: Dr. T. A. Shafi1*, Dr. A. K. Wankar2, Dr. A. M. Syed3 and Dr. P. M. Mane3

1Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Medicine, 2Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Physiology, 3Hospital Registrar, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Parbhani-431 402 (MS)

*Corresponding Author: Dr Tawheed Ahmad Shafi

Phone Number: +91-9682329989


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Cold Weather Safety Tips

You’re probably already aware of the risks posed by warm weather and leaving pets in hot cars. But do you know that cold weather also poses serious threats to animals’ health? These tips by veterinarians can help keep the winter season safe for pets TEXT: TEAM BUDDY LIFE

Winter is that time of the year which is all fun, frolic, party and holidays. But amidst all the festivities be prepared to protect your fur baby from the chill that sweeps most parts of northern India. Sometimes our canine companions love to romp out in the winters but some like our brand ambassador, Bella, hate to venture out in the cold. Even though Bella is a Jack Russell Terrier, a hunter breed, she prefers to remain cuddled up under a cosy blanket. Ah, but it is chilly and every pet parent should be prepared to protect the fur baby whenever she ventures in the cold. Several pet parents have the misconception that because their pets have fur, they can tolerate the cold better than humans. This isn’t necessarily the case. Like us, these fur coated creatures are used to the warmth of indoor shelter and cold weather can be as harsh for them as it is for us. Whatever your viewpoint on winter, one thing remains certain: it’s a time when our beloved pets need a little extra care. As Dr GD Bhati suggests, “During winters, dogs have the tendency to eat much more than they do in other seasons. This change occurs because dogs want to increase the body’s heat by eating more. The dogs’ winter diet should be high in protein, carbohydrates and fats and also have high oil content. Food such as boiled egg, boiled potato, chicken, keema, Nutri Nuggets, dry fruits, banana, papaya, sweet potatoes, rice, chicken soup, cod liver oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil etc, are beneficial for dogs in winter season.” Explains Dr Anil Gangwar: “Feeding high-calorie food to the dog is very essential but water plays an equally important part. Cold air is dry and when dogs pant, they expel water. So, one has to be sure to give the canine companion plenty of water on winter excursions. Lukewarm water works better because then the canine doesn’t need to expend calories to warm it up.” He adds, “One of the best ways for dogs to get protein while warming them up is making some chicken soup and oatmeal in plain stew is a warm and filling treat for dogs in winter.” Some vets also suggest the addition of red meat, ghee, virgin coconut oil and hand-made home-churned white butter, plain mashed potatoes and green beans, crockpot stew to be good for dogs during the winters. Additionally, a healthy, nutritious diet with vitamin H supplement can prevent the cracking of dog’s paws. Application of crack cream, cold cream, and coconut oil can also help in avoidance of the cracking in paws. The paws can be covered with socks and shoes specifically made for dogs, says Dr Bhati. Adds Dr Aditya Pratap Soni, “As they don’t have the same protection as humans do when we wear shoes, it’s crucial to safeguard their paw pads. Vaseline and coconut oil can both keep dog paw pads moisturised and help heal broken paws.”

Dr Anuj Kumar Agarwal explains, “It’s important to keep your dog’s feet clean. Keep paw pads moisturised, slather your pup’s pads in dog paw wax or paw balm before hitting the streets for a winter walk. The moisturising balm acts as a barrier to help keep out ice and harmful chemicals. Keep your pup hydrated. Dip your pup’s paws into a shallow bowl of warm water then towel dry. This will remove ice, salt chemicals, and any other build up that their paws may be exposed to. Keep the hair around paw pads well- trimmed; this will help prevent ice and snow balling up between footpads.” Adds Dr Mukesh Kumar, “Use of petroleum jelly or Vaseline in paws should be done in the winter season to prevent cracked paws. There are good quality shoes available for dogs in the market as per need.” Dressing your dog warmly is also very important. “Your dog’s fur and undercoat serve as a nice base layer. If the temperature is quite cold, seen that wounds and rashes arise due to winter jackets and coats if we do not change at regular intervals and also weekly grooming is necessary. one must consider adding a sweater or dog jacket as an outer layer, especially for a non-fur breed,” emphasises Dr Gangwar. However, regular changes of dirty jackets and coats is very important as it is seen that wounds and rashes arise due to winter jackets and coats if we do not change at regular intervals and also weekly grooming is necessary.

As Dr Mukesh Kumar sums up the winter care for our furry-tailed friends, “During winter, we should protect our dogs by different means like healthy food, winter clothes and warm bedding. Now the market is full of nutritious, green vegetables. So, we can choose maximum green vegetables, add some rice soya chunks and chicken or egg and make a good broth from all this and keep your pooch warm and healthy.”

Some of the daily winter care routine can be:

1- Apply Balm – Paw wax.

2- Do a post walk wipe down.

3- Trim their Pad fur and Nails.

4- Use Dog Shoes.

5- Try oatmeal baths.

6- Use Omega 3 Supplement, no use Omega 6 or 9.

7- Wax-based petroleum and Lanolin products may be applied to your dog’s paws before heading out-door to protect from cold and ice.

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WSAVA One Health Award for Brazilian

Parasitologist Dr Filipe Dantas-Torres to receive the prestigious award for leishmaniasis work; dedicates it to pet owners who lost their dogs during the control programme in Brazil and other endemic countries.

A Brazilian parasitologist who campaigns against the killing of dogs infected with Canine Leishmaniasis is to receive this year’s World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) One Health Award. In his role as President of the Tropical Council for Companion Animal Parasites (TroCCAP), Dr Filipe Dantas-Torres works to educate his veterinary colleagues and stakeholders across Latin America that leishmaniasis should be controlled by community-wide use of repellents and vaccination rather than by the culling of affected dogs. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a protozoan (single-celled) parasite found in dogs, cats, and certain rodents in many parts of the world, most commonly in rural areas. The parasite is transmitted by small biting sand flies. It is an important disease to be aware of because humans can also contract leishmaniasis. Clinical signs of the visceral form include fever, anorexia (lack of appetite), weakness, decreased stamina, severe weight loss, diarrhea, vomiting, increased drinking and urination, and bleeding from the nose. About one-third of dogs will develop swollen lymph nodes and an enlarged spleen and will progress to kidney failure. Muscle pain, joint inflammation, and swelling of the testicles may also be present.

A prestigious global Award, the WSAVA One Health Award is presented by the WSAVA’s One Pets Health Committee (OHC) to an individual or organisation, which has promoted an aspect of One Health relevant to companion animals. Dr Dantas-Torres is a researcher in the Department of Immunology, Instituto Aggeu Magalhães, Recife. An EBVS Veterinary Specialist in Parasitology, he also holds a Master’s degree in Public Health, a PhD in Public Health, and a PhD in Animal Health and Zoonosis. In addition to his role as President of TroCCAP, he is Editor-in-Chief of Parasites and Vectors and a director of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. He will receive his award and give an Awards Lecture during this year’s WSAVA World Congress, which takes place from October 29-31 in Lima, Peru. The lecture is entitled: ‘Challenges and opportunities for tackling companion vector-borne diseases in Latin America.’ Dr Michael Lappin, Chair of the WSAVA One Health Committee, said: “The work that Dr Dantas-Torres is completing epitomises the mission of the WSAVA One Health Committee. He has worked tirelessly to improve the lives of dogs and their owners and his work is impactful around the world.” Dr Dantas-Torres said: “I am thrilled to receive this prestigious award from the WSAVA One Health Committee.

It recognises the efforts of many people I have had the pleasure to work with. I dedicate this award to online pet health owners who lost their dogs during the visceral leishmaniasis control programme in Brazil and other endemic countries.”

The WSAVA represents more than 200,000 veterinarians worldwide through its 114 member associations and works to enhance standards of clinical care for companion animals. Its core activities include the development of WSAVA Global Guidelines in key areas of veterinary practice, including pain management, nutrition and vaccination, together with lobbying on important issues affecting companion animal care worldwide. WSAVA World Congress brings together globally respected experts to offer cutting edge thinking on all aspects of companion animal veterinary care.

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Are we turning our furry friends aggressive?

Inadequate exposure, interactions and puppy socialisation with other dogs leads to permanent adverse behavioural changes, making dogs shy, aggressive or afraid throughout their lives, write Dr A. K.Wankar, Dr S. N. Rindhe & Dr T. A. Shafi

For ages, we have been rearing dogs chain leash for protection, hunting, and as companions. Earlier, the role of our best retractable dog leash was to protect or assist in hunting. But in modern times, with rapid urbanisation and globalisation, the dog’s role has shifted from services to companionship or being a buddy. Housing pets is more prevalent in large, urbanised populations than in rural ones. This change has also led to some adaptive challenges for our pets. Instead of living in their natural environment with co-species and many humans, they are now isolated with single human or nuclear families in a restricted space.

The early period is crucial for best dog leash behaviour development, primarily governed by interactions with the mother, siblings, humans, other dogs, and the rearing environment. Research has shown that maternal care is one of the most critical factors shaping a best leash for dogs that pull behaviour. Adequate maternal care during the first couple of months of life makes the pups more adaptable to stress, less aggressive, and fearful of animate or inanimate stimuli and challenges in adult life. This factor becomes more important today when the dog breeder weans the pups at an early age from the mother. The dog breeder might or might not understand the significance of this early bonding between the mother and the pups, which affects the dog’s lifelong behaviour.

Another common issue that shapes the behaviour is socialisation with co-species. Like humans, dogs are also social animals and love to play and learn from other dogs. Inadequate exposure, interactions and puppy socialisation with other dogs leads to permanent adverse behavioural changes, making them shy, aggressive or afraid throughout their lives. Also, they will respond strongly to strangers or other urbanized stimuli, like a car horn or a train, because their behavioural adaptation was not complete during the initial 1-2 months.

We humans easily blame the breed characteristic, that this breed is naturally aggressive and nothing can be done. But we must take maximum care of our pups during the initial period. Dogs like to play with other dogs, children and adults. This playful interaction and the natural exercise make the dog calmer, adaptive, non -responsive to unnecessary stimuli. Studies have shown that gentle leader for dog training institute who play with children, regularly exercise have a much better temperament than those who don’t. Also, dogs need undivided attention, love and time from the owner, which makes the animal more friendly for human society as well as other dogs.

Dogs’ living space also shapes their personality. Free-living outdoor dogs with less human interaction are more aggressive and fearful than those living inside our homes and get affection from all family members. The human interaction, behaviour, and communication make the dog more comfortable, resilient to challenges, more pleasant, and an ideal companion. Family affection, bonding, and behaviour influence a dog’s nature as they copy humans and will be naturally like the owner or family he’s living with.

Some important points to remember and follow are:

· Adopting a dog of known good pedigree from a reliable dog breeder

· Adequate care, attention, and composite behaviour during the first one-two months continued till six-seven months

· Proper nutrition and regular exercise

· Maintaining a proper affectionate rapport and relationship

· Proper socialisation with humans and other dog trainer leash

· Avoidance of abusive language, behaviour, and punishments

· Healthy family and home environment

· Adequate living space

By following these simple but essential strategies, we can make sure that our dog becomes an adaptive and calm creature, less afraid and fearful of other animals and humans, and grows as a lovable, shareable, and ideal companion.

The authors are part of the Faculty, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences , Parbani (Maharashtra)

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Eyes Eyes Baby!

Eyes Eyes Baby

Eye conditions in dogs can range from mild irritation like allergies and small scratches, to more serious issues like cataract and major injuries. Keeping a track of what to watch out for can help you keep the fur baby’s eyes in good shape

It may be mischief or love, but the shine of your canine’s eyes means the world and gives a glimpse into their emotions and personality. They see the world with that beautiful twinkle. However, their window to the world can at times become clouded due to some infections and diseases. Keeping a track of what to watch out for can help you keep the fur baby’s eyes in good shape. BUDDY LIFE spoke to some renowned veterinarians from all over the country to understand the symptoms of eye problems in the fur babies and the consequences.

According to Dr G.S. Bedi, “Eye is the most delicate part of the body, so always handle it with care. Whenever there is scratching on the eye or the surrounding area, then we must take note. Some of the common eye problems are Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, entropion, pink eye, cataract, pannus, cherry eye and growth on eyelid.” Agrees Dr Kumar Ravi. “Just like people, dogs can get eye infections and inflammations. Your dog’s eyes can be infected by bacteria or viruses or become inflamed due to external irritants. Sometimes allergies, trauma and dry eyes can also be the cause of eye problems,” he says.

If you have a furry baby at home, you should be equipped to deal with eye issues. They are a common problem in our canine pals and it’s not just the senior dogs who have issues, but a number of conditions can occur at any age and across all breeds. As Dr (Capt) HS Growar says, “The symptoms of eye problems can be a simple increase in tears, reddening of eyes and corneal opacity. The pet will paw the eyes in case of irritation or pain which could further damage the eyes.” As experts opine, there are various types of eye maladies and each one needs to be addressed according to its merit. Much like the humans, eye problems crop up many times when a small object enters or gets embedded in the eye. In addition, scratching or pawing of the cornea, abnormal growth of eyelashes and inverting of the eyelids also lead to eye injuries.

Says Dr Anirudh Mittal, “The frequency of eye problems has increased these days. Brachycephalic breeds like pugs and boxers have more severe eye problems as compared to other breeds due to bulging eyes.” Most common of all is corneal ulcer, where the fur baby damages its own eye due to continuous itching, he explains. According to Dr Aditya Pratap Soni, “The medications vary for various conditions and by the pet parent as delay or ignorance could lead to irreversible damage.” Since our furry companion is unable to express his discomfort, it becomes a huge responsibility for us to monitor his condition. Adds Dr Anirudh Mittal, “The most common initial sign you will notice is the continuous discharge from the eye which can be transparent to yellowish green, depending on the severity of the problem.”

According to Dr Bedi, the problem of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) occurs when tear ducts do not produce enough fluid to lubricate the eyes, which leads to irritation and even ulcers in the eyes. So, whenever a pet parent notices any redness or scratching in eyes, then it is likely to be KCS. In the same way, whenever there is inward rolling of eyelid, it is called entropion which is usually a dietary disorder mostly seen in beagles, Lhasa Apso and bulldogs. Another common problem is when the eyes grow red and mucus discharge increases, then it can be a pink eye. It can be due to some allergens, bacterial infection or viral infection. In all conditions, we must first wash it with eye wash which can be saline, say experts. Dr Bedi explains, “When the lens of your dog’s eye starts becoming cloudy, then it is cataract. It can be caused by trauma to the eyes, diabetes mellitus or genetic reasons. Also if in the diet you are giving more carbohydrates, it can lead to diabetes which in turn can American cocker spaniel are some of the breeds prone to cataract. Sometimes, sudden blindness can also be caused due to cataract.”

But what better way to keep your pooch healthy and happy than preventing the disease from cropping into lively beings. “Prevention requires routine monitoring and health check-up from a veterinarian. Cleaning eyes gently with lukewarm water and soft cloth as a part of routine after a bathing schedule can avoid a few problems. But complete prevention of any problem in pets is a debatable question. Also, avoid any contact of your pets’ eye with long cutting-edge grass blades, carrot grass (commonly found allergic to dogs). Avoiding ticks and fleas, infestation and monitoring diet can reduce the risk of eye infections and can help improve the overall health condition of your pet,” suggests Dr Aditya Pratap Soni.

As Dr Kumar Ravi asserts, treatment for eye infections in dogs depends on the cause. It’s essential to visit your veterinarian to determine the cause and begin appropriate treatment. Your vet may prescribe eye drops and ointment to treat the infection, promote healing, ease any discomfort or itchiness, and possibly treat the underlying condition. Use of Elizabethen collars are also an important tool for treating eyes issues of pets as it prevents the fur babies from scratching their face. Dr Ravi says, “It’s always a good idea to wash your hands well after petting or treating your dog’s red eyes, before petting your other pets, and before touching your own eyes, nose, or mouth. As some viral infections are contagious to humans too.”

Last but not the least, Dr (Capt) H S Growar elaborates, “The best way to treat an eye condition is to immediately put on an Elizabethan collar and take him to the nearest veterinary clinic for further treatment. Do not attempt self-medication or treatment as you might cause further damage which might lead to the loss of the eye.” Your vet will be able to tell you how to manage a canine with an eye problem, do not try to deal with it yourself.

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Scent of a dog

The ultimate tracker, no technology can rival a Bloodhound, who is the most reliable when it comes to man-hunts and other tracking scenarios.

Ever since Trumpet took home the best in show, the top prize at this year’s prestigious Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show, everyone has wanted a Bloodhound at home. For the first time in Westminster’s 145-year history, a magnificently be-wrinkled and be-jowled Bloodhound beat a French bulldog, a German shepherd, a Maltese, an English setter, a Samoyed and a Lakeland terrier for the grand honours. However, let’s make it clear at the start that acquiring a Bloodhound in India is rare, and a difficult process. You won’t always find a Bloodhound at every pet store, even the higher-end ones. Additionally, they are purebreds, which makes them much more expensive. They are not commonly found with Indian breeders. Even if you import one, the characteristic Indian household is apartment-based, and usually has several objects that can be easily ingested by a bloodhound.

They need space, and smooth marble flooring is very harmful for their feet. Most of all, Bloodhounds are known more for their utility than for their appearance. It is for these reasons that the breed is not popular in India, and is rarely seen in the country. If you’ve never seen one, Bloodhounds are large dogs who may look scary at first glance, but their temperament is actually gentle and affectionate. They carry most of their weight on them bones which makes them look large, full and thick in their body frame. Male Bloodhounds are usually 64-72 cm (25-28 inches) in height and can weigh around 46-54 kilo (101-119 pounds). Female bloodhounds, on the other hand, are shorter and span 58-66 cm (23-26 inches) in height and can weigh around 40–48 kilo (88–106 pounds). It is important to bring the puppies outside every day to exercise so they can use up their energy on long walks or other physical activities. This is to prevent them from chewing, digging and other problems that may arise due to boredom. Remember, this breed’s puppies have very high energy levels and always want to play around!

But did you know that the breed did not get its name for its tracking abilities? What makes this breed so special is that they are a pet with a long, full and noble back story. Modern day Bloodhounds trace lineage to those owned by William the Conqueror. He first brought Bloodhounds to England in 1066. They were so well bred that they were a breed owned by several monarchs and aristocrats. Thus, they came to be known as Bloodhounds i.e. of aristocratic blood. The name Bloodhound originated from the fact that the earliest breeders painstakingly traced its ancestry and went through great lengths to preserve the purity of the bloodline. The breed almost went on the brink of extinction in Britain during World War II. It was largely exported to North America and Europe. Fortunately, the exported bloodlines have revived the breed’s dying population. In England, Bloodhounds were still used for hunting and sniffing out thieves and poachers until around 1805. The breed is said to have originated from Great Britain around the year 1300. Its ancestors are said to have come from France and Belgium, specifically in the Abbey of St. Hubert, Belgium. They were called St. Hubert Hounds. One Francis Hubert made it an aim in his life to breed hounds who could be used to track a scent trail. When he passed away, he was made the patron St Hubert of hunters, which is why you can still hear people from France call their Bloodhound a St Hubert Hound today. The St Hubert Hound was used to track people during mediaeval times. In Scotland, they were called ‘sleuth hounds’ and were trained to follow the trail of Robert the Bruce and William Wallace. In the 17th century, the chemist Robert Boyle was known to be the first to show the breed’s trailing abilities. He described the way a Bloodhound followed a trail of a man for seven miles and in the search, ended up tracing him in the upstairs room of a house. The breed is quite popular in fiction. In literature, they have been mentioned in the works of Sir Walter Scott. A ‘Sleeping Bloodhound’ has also been the subject of one of Sir Edwin Landseer’s paintings. In fact, a Bloodhound’s nose work is considered ‘admissible’ evidence in courts of law in the US. As long as a Bloodhound is trained to follow the tracks of human beings and its trailing accuracy has been tested on a few instances, its trail can be used as a testimony in court. No wonder the breed is a popular choice for law enforcement companions!

You’ve probably noticed its droopy ears and skin folds – it’s a face you can’t forget! The Bloodhound has a short haired dense coat, loose skin, and their coat is usually black, tan or red. If you’ve seen a black and tan Bloodhound it’s because often the skin colour and coat is a combination of colours such as black and tan, or liver and tan or red. Some dogs actually grow white fur on certain specific body parts such as their chest, feet, and tail. If you’re looking for an endearing, devoted family dog, then a Bloodhound just might be the pooch for you! It can be a little stubborn (oops!), so it’ll need good training to make sure it doesn’t get too carried away by its snout.

They are known to be really great with humans, so there is no doubt that they would make a great family member and can take part in everyday activities such as hiking, travelling and a lot of walking. They are best homed in large houses with big backyards, rather than small spaces because they grow big and will shed fur over the years. These dogs will enjoy a place in your home where they can run, follow scent, dig around and play. As they are very friendly yet independent dogs, they have the tendency to escape because of their keenness for following scent. Make sure your place is tightly secured, and your backyard is highly fenced (at least six feet), especially when you let them roam around your home. They love children and are very affectionate, but the hound dog can be dangerous around young children because of their size. Though they don’t mean to be, they can knock toddlers and little children over with just one swipe of their tail. Early on, it is important to train both the dog and the child to be gentle around each other so no one gets hurt or put the dog on a leash when lots of children are around. As they are also a large breed, they are also the perfect height to reach tables and counters. They might wipe off things that are placed on the counter, while their excitedly wagging long tail is also at the perfect height to clear a coffee table! Always be mindful of your household items, and keep an eye on them when your bloodhound is around!

They can be more reluctant around strangers, and other dogs, according to the American Kennel Club. Training and obedience classes for Bloodhounds should start early, as “they tend to become set in their ways,” the AKC says. While Bloodhounds are affectionate, they can also be stubborn and independent, the organization said. While they do enjoy some barking and howling sessions outside every now and then when trailing, a Bloodhound will often use its nose and ears to search in silence. The Bloodhound bark is distinct and this family of dogs are known for making interesting sounds. The Bloodhound’s sound is a distinctive chest sound which is called a ‘bay’. They are generally not barkers, but will make a sound similar to “roo” when they track a scent, or when something in the air peaks their attention. They can make melodious tunes when baying, howling, and whining! This is one of the many unique Bloodhound characteristics.

Bloodhounds have a short, smooth coat and only shed once or twice a year. The dog’s coat is really made for being out in the wild, which is exactly why this hound’s coat usually has a more distinct smell compared to other dog breeds. If you see one closely, you might notice that their coat tends to get a lot of grease. This is because having a greasy exterior helped them to survive in the wild by trapping different smells. It is recommended they be brushed weekly, and owners must check inside their trademark ears and wrinkles for any odors, infection or irritation. Because of their long and droopy ears, our Bloodhound friends can also be troubled by some ear problems such as ear mites and too much cerumen. Regularly clean their ears and bring them to the veterinarian if you notice a scent or anything unusual. Bloodhounds are known to drool and slobber. You will need to keep some wipes available all the time in the house. If you choose this dog as your new family companion, you need to be prepared for lots of dribbling over the years! They can be messy eaters and are prone to bloating. Monitor your Bloodhound if you find that they are feeling some kind of discomfort. They are more likely to have problems with their teeth over the years compared to other dogs. There might be some dirt built up on their teeth which may cause gum and other tooth diseases. This will be very uncomfortable for your pet, and will create a foul scent so keep in mind to regularly brush their teeth to keep them healthy and strong.

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Neuter and Spay Your Pet: To do or not

Neuter and Spay Your Pet
Is it fair to say that spay and neuter surgery may prevent or minimise
unwanted behaviours while maintaining a pet’s same personality?
- Ronny Mathews, Kochi

One common question about neutering is, “Will it affect my dog’s personality?” So, first let’s talk about some of the physical effects of neutering: When a vet performs a neutering procedure, they remove the organs from the body which are responsible for producing most of the sex hormones – like testosterone and oestrogen. Over time in a neutered pet, the amount of these sex hormones will drop to a low and steady level. In an un-neutered pet, these hormone levels will change over time, and will generally be much higher.

It is possible that neutering may affect parts of a bitch’s personality because of these hormones. The normal cycle for a bitch means that each season is followed by a “false pregnancy” where the body behaves as if it is pregnant, even when it’s not. These false pregnancies can in some animals make a bitch nervous or anxious, she may try to build nests or even adopt “surrogate” puppies like stuffed toys and carry them around, or try to protect them. It can be quite stressful for her and for you. If you neuter a bitch, you prevent these false pregnancies from occurring. Now coming to your question, does getting a dog spayed or neutered change their personality? In the majority of cases, yes! Spaying and neutering influences behaviour by eliminating the female and male sex hormones released by ovaries and testicles. Spaying stops a female from entering a heat cycle by reducing the release of oestrogen. Neutering reduces the release of testosterone in males, who, unlike females, are always in heat. Common unwanted behaviours that can be minimised or eliminated with a spay surgery are:


An intact female may run away in search of a male to mate with. This is not romantic courtship, but an instinctual behaviour resulting from a heat cycle. Heat cycles happen twice a year in dogs and every one to three weeks in cats. This is when they are most sexually active and able to reproduce. Roaming puts your pet at risk of being lost, injured or killed by cars. The desire to roam can be eliminated by removing the ovaries and uterus that produce oestrogen.


Heat cycles cause a fluctuation in hormone levels that can lead to irritability, which can manifest in ways like excessive whining, restlessness, and anxiety. Spayed females do not experience these hormonal fluctuations. Your pet will likely display more consistent behaviour after being spayed.


Females may exhibit aggressive behaviours when competing for male attention. If a female becomes pregnant, she may behave aggressively towards you or others who approach her litter. Spayed females have a reduced desire to seek out a mate, and the possibility of pregnancy is virtually eliminated.

Frequent urination

Females may urinate during a heat cycle to attract males. Pet urine is difficult to clean completely and its presence encourages other animals to “scent post,” or urinate over the area again and again.


When a female is in heat, her vulva will swell and she will bleed. The bleeding lasts approximately two weeks. To keep blood from getting everywhere, owners can purchase special diapers that most dogs don’t like to wear.

Unwanted Attention

A male dog can smell a female dog in heat from about three miles away, and a male cat from about one mile away. Any intact male dog or cat will show up at your door if at all possible. Common unwanted behaviours that can be minimised or eliminated with a neuter surgery are:

Your pet seeking unwanted attention


Just like females, your male will go out in search of a female to mate with. A male dog can smell a female “in heat” from about three miles away, and he will make every effort to reach her. Your male pet could then be lost, injured, or even killed by a car. Neutering reduces or eliminates the risk of roaming.


We’ve all seen it, and some of us have even been a victim of it: inappropriate mounting! The sexually motivated mounting of people, other pets, or furniture can be reduced by neutering.


Males competing for female attention can cause fights or other aggressive behaviour. When the desire to mate is reduced, the chances of aggression related to mating will also be reduced.


Males want everyone to know he is present. They do this by “marking their territory” or put simply, peeing on things indoor and out. Neutering your pet will reduce and sometimes eliminate the marking behaviour. In a majority of cases, the benefits of spay and neuter include the reduction or elimination of unwanted behaviours, but it is not a quick fix to all behaviour problems. In older pets, it may take a little longer to develop replacement behaviours for the undesirable behaviours they have practised for so long. Ultimately, your pet’s behaviour is based on their individual personality, history, and physiology. Proper socialisation combined with a spay or neuter surgery are key steps to helping your pet live a happy and healthy life!

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Ehrlichiosis in Dogs

Ehrlichiosis in Dogs

Ridding the dog’s environment of ticks and applying flea and tick preventives

are the most effective means of preventing the tick-borne disease, writes

Yung-Tsun Lo D.V.M., Ph.D, Bioguard Corporation

Canine ehrlichiosis is a bacterial disease caused by infectious bacteria from the Ehrlichia genus. Though this disease happens everywhere, it is more common in tropical regions. With global warming, the expansion of tick habitats and the prevalence of cross-border tourism, the chances of the disease spreading to non-endemic areas have increased.

How is a dog infected with Ehrlichia?

Ehrlichiosis is a disease that develops in dogs after being bitten by an infected tick. Disease transmission can occur in as little as three to six hours after the tick attaches, therefore prompt tick removal is crucial. Ehrlichiacanis (E. canis) is the most common rickettsial species involved in ehrlichia in dog, but other strains of the organism will occasionally be found. These bacteria live inside your pet’s white blood cells.

“in acute ehrlichiosis

treated early. Fever usually

subsides in a day or two,

but treatment should be given for 28 days.”

Symptoms of ehrlichiosis in dogs

There are three phases to ehrlichiosis caused by E. canis: acute, sub-clinical and chronic. Each phase of this disease has differing or no symptoms at all. Symptoms only begin to appear between one and three weeks after infection. Common symptoms for all three phases of the disease are:

  • Fever
  • Lymph node swelling
  • Limping and stiffness
  • Reluctance to walk
  • Reduced appetite
  • Tiredness
  • Cough and breathing difficulty
  • Abnormal bruising and bleeding

Dogs will generally move from the acute to the sub-clinical phase after about 1-4 weeks. In the sub-clinical phase, symptoms all but disappear as the disease hides itself in your pup’s spleen. Not all dogs ever progress from the sub-clinical phase to the chronic phase, but when they do, the symptoms become much more serious.

How is ehrlichiosis in dogs diagnosed?

If you notice your dog is not eating well, is lethargic, or has other symptoms of ehrlichiosis in dogs, you should visit your veterinarian.

Some of the tests that help in ehrlichiosis diagnosis are:

  1. A complete blood count (CBC). The usual findings are a low haemoglobin level (anaemia) and low platelet counts (Thrombocytopenia, which can cause bleeding).
  2. Ehrlichia antibodies by serology tests, such as ELISA or rapid test. These remain positive for years, even after the infection has been cured.
  3. DNA /PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests to determine the species of Ehrlichia that is infecting your dog.
  4. Rarely, the organism itself may be seen in blood smears.

How is ehrlichiosis treated?

Antibiotics, such as doxycycline, are the primary treatment for ehrlichiosis in dogs. Recovery is excellent in acute ehrlichiosis treated early. Fever usually subsides in a day or two, but treatment should be given for 28 days. If the infection is longstanding (chronic ehrlichiosis), the recovery is not sure. Prolonged courses of antibiotics are needed. Your veterinarian will discuss treatment options with you as some supportive medications such as steroids may be needed depending on the clinical state of the patient and blood parameters. Dogs experiencing severe anemia or bleeding problems may require a blood transfusion.

Preventing ehrlichiosis in dogs

Ridding the dog’s environment of ticks and applying flea and tick preventives are the most effective means of prevention. There are plenty of options available, including topical, tablet, and chewable medications. Your veterinarian will be able to help you find the best option for your pet.

Can I get ehrlichiosis from my dog?

No. However, humans can get canine ehrlichiosis from tick bites. Since dogs and people are often exposed to the same tick population, it is possible for people and dogs in the same household to test positive for ehrlichiosis.

“Represents the stage of infection in

which the organism is present but

is not causing any outward signs of

disease. Sometimes a dog will pass

through the acute phase without

its owner being aware

of the infection.”

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Homeopathy to treat behaviour disorders in Dogs

Homeopathy to treat behaviour disorders

Just like in humans, homeopathy can treat a wide variety of conditions,

including “health” problems faced by our dogs that are associated with

behavioural pathologies, says Dr Tushar Gupta, B.H.M.S.

If you’re reading this article, it’s because you’re considering homeopathy to help your dog. And that’s good news. But homeopathy isn’t like any painkiller or other medication you’ve used. It’s not a one-size-fitsall solution … remedies are specific to the symptoms of each patient. Just like in humans, homeopathy can be used to treat a wide variety of conditions, including “health” problems faced by our dogs that are associated with behavioural pathologies, or unmet behavioural expectations. These problems result in undesirable behaviour as per the normal range of the breed and its age. Pet parents often find it difficult to identify and effectively manage the challenging behavioural pattern in their beloved pets. Hundreds of pets are abandoned because they have behavioural problems that the owners can’t deal with. Many of the activities that animals engage in are entirely appropriate for their species … but not so appropriate in our civilized human society. Examples include: barking, digging, chewing, turf marking with feces and urine, and aggressively protecting their own turf. So, while many of these behaviours can be “trained away”, owners also need to be aware that these are normal animal activities… before they purchase their pets. In addition, pets may have problems with socialization with some or all of the human family members, for a variety of reasons. As examples, the family pet may fear children, or distrust either females or males, or hate the newest member – child or spouse – of the household. Socialization problems can be compounded when they extend into the neighbourhood and its people. And many pets, because they have become a part of the family “pack” become extremely anxious when they are left home alone. Few of the common behavioural problems seen in dogs are:

Separation Anxiety

The dogs can experience anxiety when the pet parent leaves them alone. As per an estimate, approximately 14% of dogs have separation anxiety. It could be defined as an inability of the dog to find comfort when separated from family members. Separation anxiety could be primary or secondary to some event. In extreme circumstances, this can mean just leaving the room or disappearing from the dog’s view. It leads to a typical behavioural pattern in which the dog chews, whines, barks, destroys the house, or mutilates their body when the pet parent is out of sight. Dogs who exhibit this behaviour are usually very sensitive; many have had several homes or experiences that have resulted in a setting that causes them to become extremely stressed. The majority of separation anxiety instances involve extreme periods of excitement followed by voids of attention and company.

Separation Anxiety of dogs


Aggression is the most common and significant behavioural issue in dogs. It refers to a set of behaviour that usually starts with warnings and ends with an attack. When a dog demonstrates hostility toward people, he or she usually exhibits signs of becoming increasingly agitated.


Dogs can communicate in a variety of ways, including barking. The barking of a dog might be excessive at times. Because barking serves a multitude of purposes, the pet parent must first determine the cause and motive for the dog’s barking before addressing the issue. Barking can be identified as territorial barking, alarm barking, attention-seeking barking, compulsive barking, anxiety or frustration induced barking.


Phobias are defined as quickly developed fearful reactions that do not diminish either with gradual exposure to the object or without exposure over time. Phobias involve sudden, profound, abnormal responses that result in extremely fearful behaviour in the dogs. An immediate, excessive anxiety response is characteristic of phobias, which develop quickly with little change in their presentation between bout of signs and symptoms. Phobias are the result of a negative event in the past. They can develop over time as a result of repeated events, but for dogs, it only takes one to turn a fearful response into a phobia.


A detailed behavioural history is needed prior to making any diagnosis. The history should be exhaustive and include the following:

  1. Sex, breed, and age of the dog
  2. Age at the onset of condition or complaint
  3. Duration of condition or complaint
  4. Description of actual behaviour
  5. Frequency of symptoms or behaviour
  6. Duration of average bout
  7. Any changes in pattern, frequency, intensity, and duration of bouts
  8. Any corrective measures tried and the response
  9. Any activities that stop the behaviour
  10. 24-hr schedule of the dog and pet parent, and any day-to-day variability.

Supportive Therapy

In these cases, behaviour assessment and counselling are required to ensure that the pet parents have a realistic understanding of what can be accomplished and that treatment strategies (e.g., environmental and behaviour modification) are implemented to achieve an acceptable level of improvement for both the pet-parent and the pet. Dogs that exhibit any of the signs and symptoms of a behavioural problem should be comforted. In scenarios involving these issues, harsh punishments are not suitable. Dogs are frequently sensitive or insecure, and such acts might exacerbate the condition. In cases involving behavioural problems, professional help should be sought straight away. Assessment of the home environment and interactions within it is another important component in treating the problem. Concentrated activity and quality attention often go hand in hand with the other strategies for addressing the situation.


Homeopathic medicines provide symptom-based holistic coverage for the treatment of various behavioural problems in dogs. When paired with behaviour modification, homeopathic treatment for any behavioural disorder is most effective. Homeopathy has very effective remedies for the behavioural problems and helps in restoring positive behaviour in dogs. The medicines help in stabilising the distressed mind and are natural, safe, non-habit forming, and without any side effects.

Case Study

A nine-year-old Labrador was brought to us for repeated episodes of whining and excessive barking for the past three months. There were recurrent episodes noted by the housekeeper. The pet parent was unable to identify any such symptoms while he was around the dog. A detailed case history including signs and symptoms was taken from the pet parent and the caretaker to formulate the holistic homeopathic line of treatment. As evident by the case details, the dog exhibited clear signs and symptoms of separation anxiety. The onset of symptoms was correlated with the increased travel of the pet parent due to his work. Also, there was a history of the dog being abandoned by his previous owner during the pandemic.

The case was analysed utilising the latest homeopathic software and the line of treatment was formulated. The treatment was decided to provide symptom-based relief and a long-term plan was prepared to include medicines known to reduce anxiety, improve stress tolerance and stabilize the distressed mind of the pet. Medicines used in this case: Ignatia, Argentum Nitricum, and Kali phosphoricum (medicines were used based on symptom totality as and when needed, in regular/infrequent doses).

Symptomatic relief for the acute symptoms was observed in the first few days of treatment. The pet parent and the caretaker confirmed the reduction of whining and barking even in the absence of the pet parent. Long-term homeopathic treatment was continued and reduction in severity and frequency of symptoms was observed within a few months of the treatment.

As always, let us build a symbiotic relationship as a pet parent and caretaker to collaboratively spread the goodness and benefits of homeopathy amongst our pets.

Stay healthy and stay safe.

Dr Tushar Gupta - Buddy Life Magazine

Dr Tushar Gupta


WhatsApp: 9891586494

Phone: +353 87 283 6527